Les enjeux p The multiple references to Africa, to Castro government and Christianity are employed, in different ways, by the antagonist, though punctually allied, counterparts. Elle se construit sur deux axes. Ils purent alors transmettre partiellement leurs traditions.
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It arose through a process of syncretism between the traditional Yoruba religion of West Africa and the Roman Catholic form of Christianity.
There is no central authority in control of the movement, which comprises adherents known as creyente and initiates known as santeros males and santeras females. These are often identified both as Yoruban gods as well as Roman Catholic saints.
Various myths and stories are told about these oricha, which are regarded as subservient to a transcendent creator deity, Olodumare. Each individual is believed to have a specific oricha who has been connected to them since before birth and who informs their personality. A central ritual is the toque de santo , in which practitioners drum, sing, and dance to encourage an oricha to possess one of their members.
They believe that through this possessed individual, they can communicate directly with an oricha. Offerings to the oricha include fruit and the blood of sacrificed animals , usually birds. Offerings are also given to the spirits of the dead, especially those of ancestors, with some practitioners identifying as spirit mediums.
Healing rituals and the preparation of herbal remedies, amulets, and charms, also play a prominent role. It arose through the blending of the traditional religions brought to Cuba by enslaved West Africans, the majority of them Yoruba , and the Roman Catholic teachings of the Spanish colonialists who then controlled the island.
After the Cuban War of Independence resulted in a newly independent Cuban state, the constitution enshrined freedom of religion. Both in Cuba and abroad it has spread beyond its Afro-Cuban origins and is practiced by individuals of various different ethnicities.
The Roman Catholic Church has often seen it as Satanic , Cuba's Marxist—Leninist government perceived it as primitive superstition, while animal welfare groups have criticised its use of animal sacrifice.
There, these beliefs mixed with the Roman Catholicism introduced by Spanish colonialists. Within the religion there is a range of vocabulary to indicate the level of involvement someone has,  with the different terms sometimes reflecting different political and social agendas.
Santeria is a polytheistic religion. Among the oricha are the "warrior deities", or guerrors. The oricha are often conflated with particular Roman Catholic saints based on similar attributes between the two. Practitioners believe that each person is "born to" a particular oricha, whether or not they decide to devote themselves to that deity. To ensure the protection of a particular oricha, practitioners are encouraged to make offerings to them, sponsor ceremonies in their honor, and live in accordance with their wishes, as determined through divination.
At that point the practitioner may turn to divination to determine the precise meaning of the encounter. This oricha will thenceforth be "the owner of the head" and will influence the individual's character after they are born.
Adherents believe that each individual has a cuadro espiritual "spiritual portrait" or "spiritual picture" of various egun who protect and bless them. Practitioners often believe that individuals have a specific destiny ,  usually referred to as destino destiny or camino road.
Most casa are established by a santero or santera who has attracted a following. Different casa are largely autonomous, allowing for variation in their ritual practices.
The igbodu within the casa will typically contain an altar,  while individual practitioners will also often have altars to specific oricha in their own homes. The otanes undergo a bautismo baptism rite;  this allows them to be "born" and involves the being washed in osain , a mixture of herbs and water, after which they are "fed" with animal blood.
In addition to their altar to the oricha, many practitioners also have altars set aside for the spirits of the dead. This location is chosen so that the ancestors are located below the vertical water pipes, allowing the spirits to transition between the realms via water, which is their preferred medium for travel.
Methods of killing include having their throats slit or their heads twisted and ripped off. City of Hialeah. City of Euless. The court ruled that the city of Euless, Texas was interfering in Merced's right to religious freedom by preventing him from sacrificing animals.
Being initiated is known as kariocha ,  "making ocha ",  or "making santo ". The process of initiation takes place over seven days,  with an additional two days of preparatory rituals. During this ritual, it is common for the egun to be invited to possess the initiate. The rest of the initiation takes place in the igbodu , or inner sanctum of the casa. The new initiate is given beaded necklaces, known as elekes ,  ilekes ,  or collares.
As well as the necklaces, the initiate will also receive their own sacred stones. A matanza animal sacrifice usually follows, designed to feed all of the major oricha. A series of additional birds may then be brought out and killed in the same manner, their carcasses placed next to images of the oricha. The oyugboda takes them to the marketplace, or if outside Cuba sometimes to a store run by a sympathizer.
The new initiate can finally take their tureen containing their otanes back to their home. At these ceremonies, praise songs for the oricha are sung.
Each of the oricha is associated with a particular dance. During the possession, the possessed individual is referred to as the "horse", with the oricha having "mounted" them. Toque de santo are rarely documented with photographs or through audio or visual recording because the religion's practitioners often regard such recordings as being offensive or sacrilegious.
Clients meet with santeros or santeras who provide healing treatments. Protective charms, known as resguardo , are created using herbs and blood. They are created while in contact with the sacred stones, from which they are believed to gain invisible fluid. After the Spanish Empire conquered Cuba, the island's indigenous Arawak and Taino people were soon annihilated.
In Spanish Cuba, Roman Catholicism was the only religion that could be practiced legally. Most of the enslaved Africans who arrived in Cuba did so in the 19th century. These traditions then had to adapt to meet the new social conditions of the enslaved population. In Cuba, traditional African religions continued to be practiced within clubs and fraternal organizations made up of African migrants and their descendants.
From , Cuba's government increased restrictions on the cabildos ,  however during the nineteenth century their functions and membership expanded. Cuba's involvement in the Atlantic slave trade continued into the s, after both the English-speaking Caribbean and the United States had abolished slavery. The trade nevertheless continued clandestinely, with Cuba continuing to receive new slaves until at least After slavery was abolished in Cuba there was a renewed push for independence from the Spanish Empire, an idea promoted by Cuban nationalists who emphasized cultural assimilation of the island's various ethnic groups to create a united sense of 'Cuban-ness'.
Much of the Afro-Cuban population was supportive of Castro's new administration, believing that they had the most to gain from the change. Partly this was because the increased employment among Cubans following the revolution had allowed more individuals to afford the initiation fees. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union , at which Cuba lost its main source of international support, Castro's government declared that the country was entering a " Special Period " in which new economic measures would be necessary.
This was accompanied by growing contact with other orisha-worshippers elsewhere. In Cuba, there has been much opposition from the Roman Catholic clerical establishment over the centuries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Lucumi religion. Afro-American religion of Yoruba origin that developed in Cuba.
For the Sublime song, see Santeria song. For the basketball team, see Santeros de Aguada. He is often depicted as half-black, half-red left image and is also represented by small cement heads kept in the home right.
Play media. Cuba portal Religion portal. City of Hialeah, U. June 11, Retrieved October 25, July 31, Its ritual of animal sacrifice he revealed on his own". Dallas Observer. City University of New York. Ayorinde, Christine Racial Politics and the Cuban regla de ocha ". In Theodore Louis Trost ed. The African Diaspora and the Study of Religion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. Journal of Black Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics Grand Rapids: Wm. Center for Migration Studies. The World of Music. Washington, D. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. The Journal of American Folklore. Washington DC: Smithsonian Books. New York: Routledge.
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It arose through a process of syncretism between the traditional Yoruba religion of West Africa and the Roman Catholic form of Christianity. There is no central authority in control of the movement, which comprises adherents known as creyente and initiates known as santeros males and santeras females. These are often identified both as Yoruban gods as well as Roman Catholic saints. Various myths and stories are told about these oricha, which are regarded as subservient to a transcendent creator deity, Olodumare. Each individual is believed to have a specific oricha who has been connected to them since before birth and who informs their personality. A central ritual is the toque de santo , in which practitioners drum, sing, and dance to encourage an oricha to possess one of their members.
Yoruba - Lukumí
The Regla de Ocha, the orisha religion based in Yoruba culture, has now spread up and down the Americas and beyond. Pueblo religioso en general y a quien pueda interesar. According to him, the inclusion of African History and Yoruba Language in the curriculum would help bring the African Brazilian people close to their roots, and thus encourage the understandings of the language among other important languages in Brazil apart from Portuguese which is the official language. I get through the pores the joy of landing in Cuba! Historically, women have been banned from playing the bata. The group was founded in , making it the first ever of it's kind. The bata drum in Cuba originated as an instrument that was used by African slaves.