We tested statistically for geographic association and partitioning of genetic variation among mtDNA clades. The mtDNA data supported the hypothesis of several cryptic species within L. In addition, the mtDNA data divided the southern populations into two clades that showed no sister relationship to each other, consistent with high differentiation and lack of gene flow among southern populations as suggested by allozyme data. Concordance between mtDNA and allozyme patterns suggests that cryptic speciation has occurred in L. This study illustrates a case in which lineage splitting during the speciation process took place without divergence in reproductive isolation mechanisms e.
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Amphibians are usually generalist predators, and their diet is influenced by extrinsic e. This study aims to describe the diet of adult males and females of Leptodactylus fuscus in the Pantanal of the Miranda river and to answer the following questions: i Are prey's maximum size and number of food items explained by the anuran's body size?
We recorded 62 food items, belonging to seven orders of Arthropoda, and one individual of Annelida. The diet of L. Frog's body size did not influence prey size or number of food items consumed. The number of prey and richness of morphospecies did not differ between males and females. There was low diet overlap between the sexes. Our results provide evidence for the opportunistic and generalist feeding behavior of L.
Keywords: Pantanal floodplain, food items, trophic ecology. A dieta de L. Most amphibians are generalist predators and feed on invertebrates Rodrigues et al.
Dendrobatidae are specialized in certain type of prey Biavati et al. Amphibians occupy an important trophic position in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by controlling populations of many organisms, especially invertebrates, and also serving as prey for many organisms Toledo et al. Generally, the diet of anurans is influenced by morphological traits, such as body size or skull shape Emerson , Biavati et al.
Several studies show that the predator size explains the variations in abundance and volume of prey, concluding that larger individuals are expected to feed on larger preys and in larger quantity Maneyro et al. Another important factor in the diet of frogs is energy demand, which may vary between seasons or sexes Ryan , Wells The Pantanal is the largest wetland of the planet approximately There are only two studies that describe the diet of three anurans species: Leptodactylus podicipinus Cope, Rodrigues et al.
Leptodactylus fuscus Schneider, is a medium-sized frog Reproduction occurs throughout the rainy season in the margins of temporary ponds and swamps Martins , De-Carvalho et al. Reproductive activities require much energy, which causes rapid consumption of lipid reserves and demand foraging before and during the period of vocalization in order to maintain reproductive activity Ryan , Wells We expected that males had greater diversity and quantity of prey in their stomachs in response of the apparently higher energy demand.
Although L. The aim of this study is to describe the diet composition of L. The study area includes portions of disturbed riparian forests of the Miranda river and "Paratudal", an arboreal savanna formation with predominance of Paratudo tree Tabebuia aurea Manso Benth.
Four Y-shaped pitfall traps were arranged in the riparian forest of Miranda river and four in "Paratudal". The pitfall traps consisted of four L buckets one in the center and one in each end, totaling 32 buckets , remained opened during four nights and checked every morning. We performed the visual encounter surveys in temporary ponds and swampy areas near BEP and in flooded parts of riparian forest. We recorded the snout vent length SVL with caliper to nearest 0.
We analyzed the stomach content under a stereomicroscope, identified each item to the order or family level and assigned to a morphospecies. We divided the morphospecies based on the size and shape of the body, patterns of coloration and characteristics of structures such as wings, legs or mouthparts. Partially digested preys were compared to well preserved individuals of the same morphospecies for the estimation of length and width.
The data meet the statistical assumptions of linearity, normality and homoscedasticity required for linear regression. To assess the contribution of each morphospecies in the diet of L. To obtain the values of the IRI and the parameters needed for its calculation for each sex, we considered the abundance of each Order as the sum of the number of each morphospecies.
To assess the pattern of occurrence and abundance of food types between sexes, a plot representing the direct ordination of the morphospecies was constructed based on a matrix lines are the sampling units and columns are abundance of morphospecies , in which the morphospecies are sorted in relation to the weighted average abundance, which is calculated based on the values assigned to each sex 0 for females and 1 for males. All the analyses were performed using the software R version 2.
Of these, 30 were collected by active search and only three by pitfall traps. We found a total of 62 food items belonging to two phyla: Annelida and Arthropoda. We also found 16 different morphospecies Table 1. Frogs ranged in size from The average size of females was slightly larger than males, but there was a great overlap in the amplitude of size Female: We did not calculate the IRI of Blattaria 2 and Hymenoptera 1 because they were found in advanced degree of digestion.
From the 16 morphospecies found, five Three morphospecies The high importance of agile arthropods such as beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, ants and spiders in the diet of species of the Leptodactylus genus indicate more sit-and-wait feeding strategy Maneyro et al.
De Carvalho et al. The difference in the most important orders in the diet of L. Several studies found a relationship between predator and prey size or prey number, based on stomach contents Maneyro et al. The lack of relationship between the frog's size and maximum volume of prey, and frog's size and number of prey obtained in this study may be attributed to the fact that only adults were sampled.
Studies on the diet of L. However, in the study of the Uruguayan population, the authors found differences in the proportion of food items between sexes when considered only individuals collected in the dry season, which was interpreted as adaptations related to the decrease in abundance of prey during this period Maneyro et al.
In the sampled area, males and females of L. Nevertheless, the diet overlap was low because of several morphospecies unique to each sex Figure 1 , which appear in only one frog and represented by one prey. The fact that the morphospecies unique to male of female appeared in only one frog and was represented by one individual indicates that its probably result of chance, since this specie have a generalist feeding behavior. We conclude that the diet of adult males and females of L.
There is no influence of frog size in the maximum size and number of prey, as this relationship is usually related to ontogenetic differences and only adults were used in this study. There is no difference in the number of prey and the abundance of morphospecies between sexes, which indicates similar energy demand of males and females in the reproductive season.
The low diet overlap and differences in diet composition between the sexes may be associated with the generalist habit of L. We recommend that future studies addressing the diet of frogs use the largest possible range of size from juveniles to adults and assess the availability of potential prey in the environment to allow analysis of dietary preference.
Gustavo Graciolli for help identifying the arthropods. Field techniques for herpetofaunal community analysis. In Herpetological communities N. Scott Junoir, ed. Fish Wild. Helminth component community of the paradoxal frog Pseudis platensis Gallardo, Anura: Hylidae from south-eastern Pantanal, Brazil.
Amphibian diversity and life history. Dodd Junior, eds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. Visual encounter surveys. In Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians W. Heyer, M. Donnelly , R. McDiarmid, L. Foster, eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, London, p.
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Version 5. Effects of prey type on specific dynamic action, growth, and mass conversion efficiencies in the horned frog, Ceratophryscranwelli. Systematics of the fuscus group of the frog genus Leptodactylus Amphibia, Leptodactylidae. Los Angeles Com. Diet composition of the Indian rice frog, Rana limnocharis , in the floodplain of the Kizu River, Japan. JUNK, W. Pantanal: a large South American wetland at a crossroads.
Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. The effects of size on the diets of six sympatric species of postmetamorphic litter anurans in Central Amazonia. Does foraging activity change with the ontogeny? An assessment for six sympatric species of postmetamorphic litter anurans in Central Amazonia. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus Anura: Hylidae selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.
The reproductive ecology of Leptodactylus fuscus Anura, Leptodactylidae : new data from natural temporary ponds in the Brazilian Cerrado and a review throughout its distribution. Use of geometric forms to estimate volume of invertebrates in ecological studies of dietary overlap.
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Amphibians are usually generalist predators, and their diet is influenced by extrinsic e. This study aims to describe the diet of adult males and females of Leptodactylus fuscus in the Pantanal of the Miranda river and to answer the following questions: i Are prey's maximum size and number of food items explained by the anuran's body size? We recorded 62 food items, belonging to seven orders of Arthropoda, and one individual of Annelida. The diet of L. Frog's body size did not influence prey size or number of food items consumed. The number of prey and richness of morphospecies did not differ between males and females.
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Leptodactylus fuscus is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. Its local names are rana picuda " woodcock frog" and rana silbador "whistling frog". Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests , subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests , dry savanna , moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland , subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland , subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, swamps , freshwater lakes , intermittent freshwater marshes , pastureland, plantations , rural gardens, urban areas , heavily degraded former forest, ponds , irrigated land, seasonally flooded agricultural land, and canals and ditches. It is not considered threatened by the IUCN. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.