It discusses key topics collectively representing the basic kinetic processes that cause changes in the size, shape, composition, and atomistic structure of materials. Readers gain a deeper understanding of these kinetic processes and of the properties and applications of materials. Topics are introduced in a logical order, enabling students to develop a solid foundation before advancing to more sophisticated topics. Kinetics of Materials begins with diffusion, offering a description of the elementary manner in which atoms and molecules move around in solids and liquids.
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Because the entire scope of kinetics of materials is far too great for a semesterlength class or a textbook of reasonable length, we cover a range of selected topics representing the basic processes which bring about changes in the size, shape, composition, and atomistic structures of materials. The subject matter was selected with the criterion that structure is all-important in determining the properties and applications of materials. Topics concerned with fluid flow and kinetics, which are often important in the processing of materials, have not been included and may be found in standard texts such as those by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot [l]and Poirier and Geiger .
The major topics included in this book are: I. Motion of atoms and molecules by diffusion Motion of dislocations and interfaces Morphological evolution due to capillary and applied mechanical forces IV. The text starts with diffusion, a description of the elementary manner in which atoms and molecules move around in solids and liquids.
Next, the progressively more complex problems of describing the motion of dislocations and interfaces are addressed. Finally, treatments of still more complex kinetic phenomena-such as morphological evolution and phase transformations-are given, based to a large extent on topics treated in the earlier parts of the text. The diffusional transport essential to many of these phenomena is driven by a wide variety of forces. The concept of a basic diffusion potential, which encompasses all of these forces, is therefore introduced early on and then used systematically in the analysis of the many kinetic processes that are considered.
We have striven to develop the subject in a systematic manner designed to provide readers with an appreciation of its analytic foundations and, in many cases, the approximations commonly employed in the field. We provide many extensive derivations of important results to help remove any mystery about their origins. Most attention is paid throughout to kinetic phenomena in crystalline materials; this reflects the interests and biases of the authors.
However, selected phenomena in noncrystalline materials are also discussed and, in many cases, the principles involved apply across the board. We hope that with the knowledge gained from this book, students will be equipped to tackle topics that we have not addressed.
The book therefore fills a significant gap, as no other currently available text covers a similarly wide range of topics. The prerequisites for effective use of this book are a typical undergraduate knowledge of the structure of materials including crystal imperfections , vector calculus and differential equations, elementary elasticity theory, and a somewhat deeper knowledge of classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics.
We have provided a list of our most frequently used symbols, which we have tried to keep in correspondence with general usage in the field. Also included are many exercises with solutions that amplify and extend the text. Bibliography 1. Bird, W. Stewart, and N. Transport Phenomena. Poirier and G.
Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing. John W. Cahn, Dr. Rowland M. Cannon, Prof. Adrian P. Sutton, Prof. Kenneth C. Russell, Prof. Donald R. Sadoway, Dr. Dominique Chatain, Prof. David N. Seidman, and Prof.
Krystyn J. Van Vliet. David T. Wu graciously provided an unpublished draft of his theoretical developments in three-dimensional grain growth which we have incorporated into Chapter We frequently consulted Prof. Scores of students have used draft versions of this book in their study of kinetics and many have provided thoughtful criticism that has been valuable in making improvements. Particular thanks are due Catherine M. Quitoriano, Joel C.
Williams, and Yi Zhang for their careful reading and suggestions. Ellen J. Siem provided illustrations from her Surface Evolver calculations. Scanning electron microscopy expertise was contributed by Jorge Feuchtwanger. Markus Doblinger furnished unpublished micrographs. Angela M.
Locknar expended considerable effort securing hard-to-locate bibliographic sources. Finally, we wish to thank our editor, Rachel A. Kemper, for her invaluable assistance at all stages of the preparation of this work. We are fortunate to have so many friends and colleagues who donated their time to help us correct and clarify the text.
Although we have striven to remove them all, the remaining errors are the responsibility of the authors. This textbook has evolved over eight years, during which our extended families have provided support, patience, indulgence, and sympathy. We thank you with all of our hearts.
Kinetics of Materials