ITU-R BT.601-5 PDF

The color encoding system is known as YCbCr The Rec. The standard has been revised several times in its history. Its seventh edition, referred to as BT. Regardless of the frame rate, the luminance sampling frequency is For each 8 bit luminance sample, the nominal value to represent black is 16 and the value for white is

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We are well aware that composite NTSC video and PAL video as well consists of a wideband luminance signal and two chrominance signals of much lower bandwidth that are modulated onto a subcarrier, double sideband-suppressed carrier signal, to be precise. We know that most of the energy contained in the luminance signal is concentrated in "lumps" that recur at the scanning line rate 15, Hz in the case of NTSC across the occupied bandwidth. We know, too, that the modulated chrominance subcarrier contains lumps of energy at the horizontal line rate and that its frequency is carefully chosen so that the chrominance lumps just fit in the holes between the luminance lumps.

We must transmit this composite signal over the air and - for many years - most of the equipment between camera and transmitter used it as well, although that equipment often does not have the bandwidth constraints that are necessarily imposed on over-the-air NTSC.

It is no secret that the composite signal has some shortcomings and that it is not particularly difficult to degrade it in a variety of ways - one of the easiest being to repeatedly re-record it or reprocess it for a number of generations. Thus, the interface signal is frequently referred to as a D-1 signal, although we know that D-1 is really the name of a tape format and not of a signal interface. When the standard was developed, there was a desire to make it applicable to both line and line television systems - and for there to be as much commonality between the line and line versions of the system as possible.

The primary sampling frequency of The most common member of this family is based on the use of one luminance signal and two color difference signals. The gamma-corrected luminance signal is sampled at Using the recommended anti-aliasing filters, the analog bandwidth of the sampled luminance signal is 5. The signals are linearly quantized PCM at a bit depth of either 8 or 10 bits. The family just described is called Theories abound as to where these numbers came from, but the "4" represents a sampling frequency of If we divide by , the ratio - carried to 8 decimal places - is 1.

The number of samples per active line is set at in both the line and line manifestations of the family. It took broadcasters a bit longer to make the transition to component digital video in their plants, but that transition is well underway today. What about the other members of the family? There are two members. Another is full-bandwidth Y, CR, CB, in which the color difference signals as well as the Y or luminance signal are sampled at These signals generate very large amounts of data and there are few recording formats that can accommodate them without applying some degree of data reduction.

The This permits signals to fit into the same bandwidth and storage devices as , but there is a compromise, of course. When The horizontal resolution is thereby reduced, although there has in the past been vigorous debate about whether this resolution reduction is visible to the average viewer.

If the sample frequency is raised to 18 MHz, the total number of luminance samples per line goes up to color difference samples in in line systems and color difference samples in in line systems, while the number of luminance samples per active line goes up to color difference samples in This generates one-third more samples per active line; the net result is that the horizontal pixel density in is equal to that achieved with There is at least one VTR on the market capable of operating at the 18 MHz sampling rate, but this member of the family has not enjoyed a great deal of use.

We still require NTSC to broadcast analog television today, but digital recording, processing and distribution systems have made it possible to operate in the component domain throughout most of the broadcast plant and it is doubtful that we will see much new NTSC or PAL plant equipment developed for use anywhere between the camera and the transmitter. TVT logo Created with Sketch. TV Technology. Categories Opinions. The latest product and technology information.

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YUV color model imitates a human vision. Term YUV itself is not defined precisely in the technical and scientific literature. The best way to avoid ambiguity associated with the term YUV is to refer to the concrete variant of YUV colors space well defined in the internationally recognized standard documents. These documents define YCbCr as a color space for digital television systems. These documents give concrete definitions for coefficients of conversion between RGB and YCbCr color spaces, for normalization and quantization of digital signals. A majority of parameters defined for the digital YCbCr color space remains the same for the YPbPr color space used in the analog television systems.

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We are well aware that composite NTSC video and PAL video as well consists of a wideband luminance signal and two chrominance signals of much lower bandwidth that are modulated onto a subcarrier, double sideband-suppressed carrier signal, to be precise. We know that most of the energy contained in the luminance signal is concentrated in "lumps" that recur at the scanning line rate 15, Hz in the case of NTSC across the occupied bandwidth. We know, too, that the modulated chrominance subcarrier contains lumps of energy at the horizontal line rate and that its frequency is carefully chosen so that the chrominance lumps just fit in the holes between the luminance lumps. We must transmit this composite signal over the air and - for many years - most of the equipment between camera and transmitter used it as well, although that equipment often does not have the bandwidth constraints that are necessarily imposed on over-the-air NTSC. It is no secret that the composite signal has some shortcomings and that it is not particularly difficult to degrade it in a variety of ways - one of the easiest being to repeatedly re-record it or reprocess it for a number of generations.

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