Objectives of Operator Training Operator Training Program Test Administration and Supply Essential Features
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From this, the North learned what measures were needed to protect their forces and have used this knowledge and the intervening time to prepare.
The North Koreans have put in a coast-to-coast system to protect the military hardware on which they have spent so much money. HARTS represent only one part of a protective system which makes maximum use of their rugged terrain. Other aspects of the systen include: 1. Such sites will be close enough to the DMZ to allow two-thirds of the artillery's range to fall in South Korea.
These rearward HARTS are used to store supplies and in time of, war or crisis, as as safe havens for second echelon forces. Hardened Artillery Sites are of several types, some more common than others. Near the DMZ can be found a variety of firing pits, bunkers or berms that hold mortars, field artillery, anti-tank guns, multiple rocket launchers, etc.
Some are always occupied, while others seem to be used only during times of increased tension. Artillery caves Fig 1 are scattered chroughout the northern side of the DMZ, depending on the terrain. These may be real caves, modified to hold artillery, or man-made tunnels. The following illustrates some of the positions identified; these could also be found in other areas:.
These consist of precast concrete, covered by earth. It is here that Communist artillery is located which can hit the South Korean capital, Seoul. The reason for "Y" bunkers is to compensate for the way the mountains run, which does not match offensive or defensive contingencies. A Hardened Artillery Site is a fortified battery fighting position in Viet Nam we called them fire bases.
Within the site will be emplacements for guns, shelters for personnel, ammunition and the fire direction center FdC , trenches for self defense and communication, cover for prime movers, and in wartime, protective wire and mixed minefields. A gun emplacement will have a gun platform, crew cover, ammunition recesses, ramps and connecting passages and breastworks.
A Hardened Artillery Site will be oriented so that all guns are able to strike targets in its battery's sector of fire. There is a school of thought which feels that the guns must be placed on the pad outside the shelter for firing. This would, of course, depend on how that site was located and made. All that is required to shoot a conventional artillery piece from a cave or bunker is to have the muzzle near enough the door so the round won't strike the roof on the way out and the blast and noise goes out the door.
The guns the North makes have gun shields to protect the crew from small arms fire and blast. A crew can position the gun with the wheels just on the inside of the entrance, with the muzzle out of the door. This would allow most of the gun's elevation to be used. In front of each position will be a pad with bermed positions for out of battery missions.
I will discuss how this emplacement is constructed later. The pad will probably be a rolled earth and cement mixture and will be sloped to allow for drainage. This would allow heavy trucks to come from the front without tearing the pad up. The entrances of a cave, tunnel or bunker will be of reinforced concrete pillars and beams on which doors are hung.
Retaining walls on either side and above the entrance would stabilize the slope and prevent being buried by a near miss. Doors would be used to keep out the elements and prying eyes in peacetime; in wartime they would provide protection from blast or fragments. To protect against blast or fragments, the doors would have to be at least 10mm of steel. The Armed Forces Journal , Aug 84, says they are of concrete. The doors could be steel on one side and concrete on the other.
To give more protection from blast, radiation or shaped charges, a steel box could be welded to the interior of the door and filled with gravel, sand or concrete. Depending on the weight, the doors could be hinged or sliding. How the doors are constructed would determine how they are hung. Dutch doors are also a possibility as they could give the crew some protection. A cave or tunnel will have a mountain or hill on top of it.
Most of the mountains in Korea are granite, so the tunnels are similar to those found in Vermont or the Rocky Mountains. Barbara Impact Area. Both are unlined and constructed by hand. The roof of a cave or tunnel will be reinforced to prevent the ceiling from spalling by direct hits.
A bunker is usually covered with several layers of earth. The first 5 cm is probably sod with grass planted on it. The next layer will be cm ft of cm granite stones. This burster layer will be thick and rigid enough to detonate or deflect delayed fuse shells up to mm or mm.
The remaining layers will be cm of uncompacted earth, a waterproof layer, and a dust layer of timbers. The roof and walls will be of precast concrete cm thick. The North Koreans may hedge their bets and make these layers thicker or put in a second burster layer.
The interiors of caves, tunnels or bunkers will be similar. There will be reference or aiming marks on the walls for use in fire control. Near the gun will be spaces to store ammunition and to do the work of setting fuses. These chambers will vary in size. A bunker will have an advantage over a cave in getting rid of expended shell cases and unused powder charges, since these could be thrown out the back or placed in conveniently dug pits a safe distance away all North Korean guns up to mm use semi-fixed ammo.
In the cave they would have to put this debris in special chambers, probably protected by blast walls and doors. There may even be a place for the crew to rest.
A cave or tunnel would have to be ventilated and lighted, and needs a drainage system because of water seepage or underground springs. A heating system would also have to be put in during the winter.
It would have to have no open flames; therefore, it would probably be an Ondal system charcoal stoves. Bunkers and caves will be interconnected by tunnels or trenches. Caves and tunnels will have blast walls to prevent sympathetic explosions. Communication to the guns and the fire direction center FPC will be via landline wire telephone. Prime movers will be located in a protected area approximately 1 km from the complex and dug in. They differ by type of weapon system and whether the weapon is emplaced above or below the grounds natural surface.
The major consideration is drainage; the months June-September are the monsoon season, and with rains of inches a month, it is not unusual to see inches an hour. An 82mm or mm mortar emplacement will consist of a circular pit 2. On the left side of the gun will be a personnel trench 3 meters long,.
Trenches will have a berm. The sides will be reinforced by planks, brush fascines or sandbags. Volume to be excavated 29 meters 3 , 38 man hours. An artillery emplacement mm, mm, mm gun platform will be 7. A personnel trench similar to the mortar emplacement will be on the right. Vol 99 meters 3 , 68 man hours. Multiple rocket launcher MRL emplacements are unique in that the jet exhaust may demolish slopes and ramps when a volley is fired.
For MRL vehicle emplacement, the excavated area is 3. The front of the emplacement will be sloped so that in case the vehicle won't start on its own, a hand crank can be used. The emplacement is 1. A trailer MRL mm will be of the same width but probably only 3 meters long, with a shorter ramp.
Volume 73 meters 3 , 65 man hours. As you have probably noticed, the volume of dirt excavated and man hours required to dig the emplacement have been shown. Who is going to dig them? Why the crew, of course. There will also be a lot of people to "volunteer", possibly at gunpoint. A Hardened Artillery Site is not just a gun emplasement, it is also a place for the crew to live. There may be a small motorpool or maintenance area.
The buildings will be one story and constructed of cement bricks with a cement stucco. The roofs will be corrogated metal or fiber tile. Inside the buildings will be a raised wooden floor covered with linoleum, with an Ondal heating system underneath.
Furniture will be at a minimum; everything a North Korean private owns, including his bed, fits in his rucksack and Koreans sit on the floor. The latrine facilities will be typically oriental.
Cement pingpong tables and a basketball court, may be located outside. There will probably be a garden on the compound and someplace to store the kimchee. The number of gun emplacements and men will depend on the weapon system. Mortars and mm howitzer batteries generally have 6 guns, while mm gun D , mm gun, and mm gun howitzer batteries have 4 guns. There are between 60 and 70 men to crew the battery. Some people guess there may be enough ammunition stored to last days.
The first day's firing will be 4 units of fire, with 2 units for the next 2 days, by which time they intend to move south.
DPRK Briefing Book
tb 600-2 department of the army technical bulletin - U.S. Army