Londrina, PR, Brasil. Campinas, SP, Brasil. Em segundo lugar, teriam de ser programas institucionalizados, reconhecidos e devidamente estruturados. Os primeiros, por meio de entrevista presencial, e os demais, em entrevista por e-mail. Mas, pondera Cunha 13 p.
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Taking these concepts as a starting point, the present research aims at investigating teaching practices in the public university so as to identify possibilities of interconnecting the different activities of teaching and researching. The aim of the research is to address four main goals: To obtain a theoretical understanding of the concept of reflective teacher in terms of a practical epistemology ; To obtain a theoretical understanding of teaching at the university as a praxis capable of contributing knowledge concerning the problematic relationship between teaching and researching ; To contemplate the results of such theoretical activities in a broader perspective so as to compare them with similar research taking place in other countries; To suggest concrete measures to effectively integrate teaching and researching at the university in institutional terms.
The research is based on two different conceptual points, which in their turn support the chosen methodology: the conceptions of teaching and learning. Given that learning is something that surpasses the mere acquisition of information, involving as it does also the processing, analyzing, comparing, putting into context, calling into question and interpreting. For the most part, teachers working at the university have learned to teach through teaching.
The experience of teaching is one of the means to learn how to become a teacher, but it does not necessarily imply that it is sufficient. And in that lies the central point concerning processes of preparation of teachers, in taking the experience of teaching as the starting point for a critical analysis of the experience itself so as to configure an epistemology of the practice of construction of the identity of teachers.
The professional development of teachers is the main goal of educational proposals that focus on the training of teachers not merely understood as a process involving a technical rationality that considers teachers as mere executors of superior decisions, but through a perspective that recognizes their capacity to make their own decisions.
In confronting their everyday attitudes with theoretical analysis, teachers are able to redefine their own practices and their theoretical support, to research for the constitution of their own practice so as to produce new knowledge concerning theoretical as well as practical aspects of their own activity.
During the last eight years I have carried out three studies on teacher education: Didactics in the Licentiateship — a study of the effects of a course program in the teaching activity of former Licentiateship students Pimenta, a  , Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education Pimenta, b  , and Contemporary Research Trends: theoretical-epistemological-methodological and political issues is under way Pimenta, .
The nature of the first two studies — investigations with teachers in schools — has led me to categorize them as practical-interpretive studies, and the last one as theoretical-interpretive. This set of questions emerges in the context of countries that try to implement public policies that promote social and school democratization, in which teachers and schools, in their new curriculum organization logics and new management forms, have attained central focus. The study Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education allowed later the move from action research to collaborative research .
And in the investigation Contemporary Research Trends: theoretical-epistemological-methodological and political issues it was possible to arrive at a critical genesis of the concept of a reflective teacher, a concept widely and indiscriminately adopted in academia and in neoliberal teacher education policies .
The purpose of this Project is to probe into the practices of teachers from a public university for the elements that point to a possible intermingling of teaching and researching; and to proceed, from the empirical data, to a critical conceptual analysis of this outlook on teaching.
The study entitled Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education had as its objective to analyze the changes in the practices and pedagogical theorizations experienced by a school team teachers and coordinators in a process of pedagogical intervention emphasizing the collective construction of knowledge at the workplace a state school.
Consequently, a formative process would marshal the knowledge from the theory of education necessary to the understanding of the teaching practice, capable of developing competence and ability such that teachers investigate their own teaching activity and, from it, constitute their teaching savoir-faire in a continual process of building new knowledge.
Such a perspective introduces a new paradigm in teacher education and its implications for the teaching profession. Agreeing with Zeichner that collaborative research is an important path towards overcoming the divide between academics and teachers, but it is not just any collaborative research that will do that , it was significant to us to constitute it as action research and, furthermore, as a critical action research Kincheloe, One of the main challenges of collaborative research is the establishment of bonds between the university researchers and the school teachers.
During the first two years of work at the school we tried to overcome the reservations and create an effective alliance with the teachers, helping them to conduct action projects. To this end, we started from their concerns, strongly related to their daily practices, and which emerged from their needs.
At the beginning, the form and direction we gave to the project, to its establishment and to the actions set in motion starting from the questions that emerged from the context — school and otherwise — was revealing of the theories of which we researchers are carriers. We have thus systematized the questions around a few themes:.
It was interesting to witness the huge mobilizing potential of the texts when worked in their links with the practices. Teachers started to rate the readings more highly, and began to ask for them. The ruptures that the theory caused in their consolidated knowledge were also clearly seen. Nevertheless, questions remained: what kind of research are we doing? Are we teachers-researchers? Once such perception had been overcome, and the partnership relations had been established, there remained the task of clarifying the understanding of what was the research that was being carried out.
For that, it was important to recover the objectives of the Project and to broaden the studies, resulting in the collective production of an article entitled Collaborative research at school as an approach to foster the development of the teaching profession . Contreras, ; Goodson, ; Zeichner, , ; Fiorentini, ; Elliot, ; Hargreaves, ; Baird, ; Pimenta, ; Penteado, Garrido and others, on school teams, reflection in action, and practice research.
In the process of the research carried out along this approach, a seminar with the participation of external consultants was organized with the purpose of expanding the analysis of theoretical-methodological and political issues of the projects .
Some of its conclusions point to the advances, the potential, and difficulties and, above all, to the need of widening and deepening the theoretical questions involved with collaborative action research:. Having in mind a better elucidation of the research Qualification of the Public Teaching and Teacher Education within this approach, we recover here its objectives and the text of Thiollent, , a landmark on action research.
The results expected from this collaboration can be summarized as follows: pedagogical changes, engendering the appreciation of work, personal growth, professional commitment, development of a culture of analysis and of participative organizational practices. Methodological paths followed were: a researching with the teachers; appreciation of common decisions and collective projects; reflection about the practice: problematization, sharing with peers, proposals for innovations; b Creating investigation projects: formulating questions for investigation; experimenting innovations testing hypotheses ; gathering data; documenting; reading auxiliary material; carrying out a systematic analysis and making the research work publicly available.
At this stage the teachers began to see themselves as authors, resulting in the increase of self-esteem and professional qualification. How do higher education teachers identify themselves professionally? For instance, a physicist, a lawyer, a physician, a geographer, an engineer, who teach in higher education, if asked to fill in a form, how do they identify themselves professionally? Among these, the first option would certainly be the most frequent. The use of such identification is frequent in signs, business cards, and prescription forms of doctors, lawyers, dentists and architects.
However, the title of university teacher alone suggests a lower identity for, socially, it seems to refer to secondary and primary education teachers. This question points to profession-related issues of higher education teachers, concerning identity issues, i. What identifies a teacher? And a university teacher? This question has been asked in many countries, both in the context of the research on education processes and in the formulation of higher education policies related to teaching and research, requirements that characterize the exercise of the profession in general terms.
With respect to the education processes, the studies have shown that:. This is explained, no doubt, by the inexistence of a specific education as a university teacher. But the latter is insufficient.
Benedito, This observation has encouraged initiatives that stress the continuing or in-service education through courses, seminars, lato sensu graduate disciplines no thesis required , talks, apprenticeship, etc. However, these initiatives are not the general rule because there is a certain consensus that the exercise of teaching at higher education does not require training in the field of teaching.
In most higher education institutions, including universities, although their teachers do have substantial experience and even years of study in their respective areas, there is widespread lack of preparation and even a certain scientific ignorance about what constitutes the process of teaching and learning for which they become responsible from the moment they step into the classroom.
Usually, teachers join departments with recognized courses, where the disciplines they will teach are already established. There they receive ready-made syllabuses; make their course plans individually and solitarily, and it is in the same condition — individual and solitary — that they must take responsibility for their teaching.
The results achieved are not subjected to study or analysis, either individually or by the course or department. Teachers receive no instructions as to planning, methodological or assessment processes; they do not have to account for their teaching or write reports, as is the case in research processes, which are object of attention and institutional control.
It can be seen that the issue of teaching at the university goes beyond classroom processes, putting under scrutiny the objectives of undergraduate teaching, a fact that has been recognized in different countries. An inspection of the international scene reveals that, in the education area of the more developed countries, growing attention is being given to the education and professional development of university teachers, as well as to the innovations in the field of didactics.
Proficiency in these areas are becoming requisites to the exercise of higher education teaching, since it is expected that teachers will become involved with the administration and management of their departments and the university, making decisions on curricula, research and financing policies, not just within the department but also with respect to federal and state public systems, research funding agencies, research policies, and teaching and assessment policies.
Consequently, the present project aims at deepening the understanding of research as a cognitive and formative principle in the processes of constitution of identity of university teaching. Numerous authors who have researched teacher education designate the articulation of theories and practices as the mainstay of the teaching activity Pimenta, ; Freitas, ; Brezinski, ; Kemmis, ; Zeichner, , among many others.
It is only upon such basis that the teaching knowledge, as a theoretical elaboration, is constituted Pimenta, The epistemology of practice brings into discussion the identity of the teacher as researcher. In the present project the objective is to systematize the fieldwork data obtained with teachers of a public university, so as to give support to the theoretical discussions about the teacher-researcher.
Some studies by Brazilian researchers have looked into some of the issues of this theme: the analysis of the teacher-pupil relationship in the classroom and in the laboratory; teacher-researcher in the university; teaching and learning in the university; methodology in higher education; the characterization of university teachers; the meaning of assessment to teachers and students in higher education .
In order to explicate the trend of recognizing the relevance of researching in the teaching process it is necessary to recall its premises related to the concept of teaching and teacher: teaching, a complex phenomenon, as a social practice conducted by humans with humans, is modified by the action and relationship between these subjects, which in their turn are modified by the process.
The teaching profession emerges in a given context and historical moment, being shaped by the needs of society, and is built from the social meanings attributed to it. We know that teaching requires command of the teaching method. What does such method consist of, and what is our level of command of it? How much do university teachers and higher education institutions value the mastery of the teaching method? In contrast to what happens with teaching, research is highly valued in universities.
However, it can be seen that being a recognized researcher who adds significantly to the theoretical knowledge of the field is not a guarantee of an excellent pedagogical performance.
We know that, because research and the production of knowledge are goals of the graduate activities, teachers systematize and develop skills appropriate to the research method when they participate in graduate programs. In order to go deeper in what constitutes the method of teaching-researching as well as the importance of researching the teaching it will be necessary to investigate the features of each one of these methods from their components: the agents involved, the time, the method and the knowledge, the results.
To what extent have studies about teachers contributed to teacher education policies in different countries?
And in Brazil? What is the potential of the Project in this perspective? What do the fieldwork data reveal as possibilities along these lines? In contemporary society profound changes can be seen regarding the sense, meaning, and purpose of the university and of higher education in general. Therefore, it is fitting to problematize the teacher education and practice within the various contexts in which they operate.
Studies will be carried out on the transformations in higher education, and in the universities and their purposes, in order to configure the relationship between research and higher education policies. With this objective we aim to collaborate in the process of construction of knowledge in the field of teacher education within the perspective of the epistemology of practice.
With this objective we aim to collaborate in the process of construction of knowledge on the problematic relationship between researching and teaching in the university. With this objective we expect to identify the limits and possibilities for teacher education of the methodology used.
With this objective we expect to produce elements that will allow analysis of the possible impacts of the formulation of public policy for higher education in universities. A version of this article was presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Crete Rio de Janeiro.
Actes de Colloque La place de la recherche dans la formation des enseignants. Recherche et Formation. Escola reflexiva e nova racionalidade. Porto Alegre. Tese de Doutorado. Universitat de Barcelona. Aprendizagem por projetos num paradigma emergente.
Campinas:Papirus, In: Masetto, Marcos, org. Campinas: Papirus,
Meaning of "docência" in the Portuguese dictionary