ATTALEA FUNIFERA PDF

A large, solitary palm reaching m in height with up to 12 m long leaves. It forms a plumose head of up to 30 large leaves that are held erect in a shuttlecock-like crown. It has a clustering form, considered the same species, but has been given the name, A. Editing by edric. The ability of rainforest palms to survive and even thrive after burning presents an evolutionary puzzle. Why should so many species exhibit apparent adaptations to an ecological factor--in this case fire-that is infrequently a natural element in the ecosystem?

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This pinnately leaved, non-spiny genus includes both small palms lacking an aboveground stem and large trees. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and has often been split into four or five genera based on differences in the male flowers. Since the genera can only be distinguished on the basis of their male flowers, the existence of intermediate flower types and the existence of hybrids between different genera has been used as an argument for keeping them all in the same genus.

This has been supported by recent molecular phylogenies. Between 29 and 67 species are recognised in the genus, with estimates of as many as Incomplete herbarium collections make it difficult to determine whether certain groups represent single species, or groups of similar species.

Attalea species have a long history of human use, and include economically important sources of palm oil and fibre. Many species are fire tolerant and thrive in disturbed habitats. Their seeds are animal dispersed, including some which are thought to have been adapted for dispersal by now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

Attalea is a genus of non-spiny palms with pinnately compound leaves—rows of leaflets emerge on either side of the axis of the leaf in a feather-like or fern-like pattern. Inflorescences are large, branched and borne among the leaves. The rachillae, which bear the flowers, emerge from the rachis. The peduncle is the main stalk, connecting the rachis with the stem. Four different types of male flowers exist. On the basis of these flower types, the genus has often been split into four genera—a more narrowly defined Attalea , Orbignya , Maximiliana , and Scheelea.

The petals of those placed in Maximiliana are much shorter than the stamens , while those placed in Scheelea and a more narrowly defined Attalea have petals that are longer than the stamens. Cocos nucifera. Lytocaryum nested within Syagrus. Attalea has been placed in the subfamily Arecoideae , the tribe Cocoseae and the subtribe Attaleinae , together with the genera Allagoptera , Beccariophoenix , Butia , Cocos , Jubaea , Jubaeopsis , Parajubaea , Syagrus , and Voanioala.

Disagreement exists as to whether Attalea should be considered a single genus, or a group of related genera. Glassman divided the group into five genera—a more narrowly defined Attalea , Orbignya , Maximiliana , Scheelea and Ynesa , [3] although he thought it likely that Ynesa colenda , the only member of that genus, was actually a hybrid.

The multigenus approach is based solely on the structure of the male flowers; no other characters could be consistently associated with one genus or another. However, a few species have flowers that are intermediate between these four types, including A. The fact that there are several hybrids between species occur that would be considered different genera under Glassman's five-genus system was also used as an argument for placing them in a single genus.

Cintia Freitas and colleagues identified three main clades within the genus based on the nuclear WRKY gene family. The first of these, a group of species from the coastal Atlantic Forest region in Brazil all of which had been placed in Attalea in the narrow sense, they termed the Attale -like clade.

This group was a sister to the other two clades. The second group, which they called the Scheelea -like clade, consisted of most of the species formerly placed in Scheelea , together with several that had been placed in Attalea narrowly defined and Orbigyna.

The third group consisted mainly of species formerly placed in Orbigyna and Maximiliana ; they called this the Orbigyna -like clade. Despite the existence of three well-supported clades, Freitas and colleagues concluded that the concept of Attalea as a single genus was best supported by their evidence.

Cook in Experts disagree about the number of species in the genus Attalea broadly defined. In , Dutch taxonomist Jan Gerard Wessels Boer estimated that as many as species may be in the genus.

In their Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas Andrew Henderson and coauthors recognised 29 species in the genus, while Sidney Glassman recognised 65 species in his treatment of the group. An important element of this disagreement is the decision by Glassman to define species more narrowly than Henderson.

As a result, what Henderson interpreted as variation within species, Glassman took as differences between morphologically similar species. This problem is complicated by the fact that many of these species are poorly represented in herbarium collections. The large size of the leaves, inflorescences and fruit of many Attalea species makes them difficult to collect. In addition, many important collections, including type specimen , have been lost or destroyed.

The three recent treatments Henderson and coauthors, Glassman, and Govaerts and Dransfield recognised a total of 73 species, but only 20 species are accepted by all of them. The remainder account for either nine species or more than For example, what Andrew Henderson considered a single species, Attalea attaleoides , [17] other authors have considered a species complex consisting of four or five species.

Glassman doubted the validity of A. Govaerts and Dransfield accepted both Glassman's four species and A. However, Jean-Christophe Pintaud was of the opinion that A. Another species complex in Attalea includes A. Henderson recognised A. Govaerts and Dransfield accepted A. Attalea vitrivir was recognised as a distinct species by Michael Balick and coauthors; [18] Glassman and Govaerts and Dransfield concurred, but Henderson considered it part of A.

Glassman also described a fourth member of this group, A. Attalea species are monoecious —male and female flowers are separate, but are borne by the same plant. Seed germination is remote tubular [22] —during germination, as the cotyledon expands it pushes the young shoot away from the seed. Three species are present in the Caribbean —two in Trinidad and Tobago , along the southern edge of the region, and one in Haiti.

Attalea includes both large trees and small, acaulescent palms, which occupy a number of different ecological niches. Dense stands of some of the larger species are conspicuous elements on the landscape, while smaller species are found in both in the forest understorey and in savannas. Disturbance has been implicated in the formation of vegetation dominated by large Attalea species. The fruit are dispersed by animals; fruit which are not dispersed frequently suffer seed predation by bruchid beetles.

Rodents, including agoutis , fed upon the fruit, and as the fruit availability declined, they fed on the seeds. Attalea species have a long history of human use.

Carbonised Attalea maripa seeds have been found in archaeological sites in Colombia dating back to BP. The leaves of Attalea butyracea and A. Several species are oil palms , with A.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: List of Attalea species. Kunth, Nov. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas. Borrone; Thomas L.

Hahn; David N. Kuhn; Kyoko Nakamura; Nora H. Oleas; Raymond J. Schnell Joly, Simon ed. Bibcode : PLoSO Uhl; Conny B. Asmussen; William J. Baker; Madeline M. Harley; Carl E. Lewis Kew Bulletin. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Illinois Biological Monographs. Archived from the original on May 17, Balick Systematic Botany. The palms of the Amazon. Oxford University Press. Economic Botany. Overal; Andrew Henderson Genera Palmarum: a classification of palms based on the work of Harold E.

Moore Jr. Lawrence, Kansas: The L. Bailey Hortorium and the International Palm Society. Acta Amazonica. Biota Neotropica. Henderson; S. Zona; D. Hodel; A.

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Attalea funifera

This pinnately leaved, non-spiny genus includes both small palms lacking an aboveground stem and large trees. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and has often been split into four or five genera based on differences in the male flowers. Since the genera can only be distinguished on the basis of their male flowers, the existence of intermediate flower types and the existence of hybrids between different genera has been used as an argument for keeping them all in the same genus. This has been supported by recent molecular phylogenies. Between 29 and 67 species are recognised in the genus, with estimates of as many as Incomplete herbarium collections make it difficult to determine whether certain groups represent single species, or groups of similar species.

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Attalea funifera Mart. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating. Home Search Contact. Attalea acaulis Burret Lithocarpos cocciformis O. Sarinia funifera Mart.

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